Test survey conducted in Q2 of 2023 related to the UP2030 project research proposal

by Sergej Lugovic

Below are the results of the test survey conducted in Q2 of 2023. This survey played a crucial role in our ongoing research development process, providing valuable insights into:

  • The adequacy of the sampling frame
  • Variability of the target population concerning the survey subject
  • Expected non-response rate and the effectiveness of measures to reduce non-response
  • Suitability of the data collection method, including testing various methods to determine the most effective
  • Adequacy of the questionnaire, including testing alternative versions to determine the most efficient
  • Effectiveness of interviewer training and adequacy of survey instructions
  • Selection of answer categories for pre-coded questions
  • Estimation of likely costs and duration of survey components and the survey as a whole
  • Organization of the survey.

The process involves informally testing questionnaire design with groups of respondents. The questionnaire, essentially unstructured, undergoes testing with a group of individuals who provide feedback on aspects such as the questions' frame of reference, the required level of knowledge, the range of likely answers, and how respondents formulate their responses.

It is essential to note that the results presented below are not representative. Instead, we utilize them to tailor further research, formulate more in-depth research questions, and assess how the research topic resonates with the target group.

The decentralized approach to reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change in urban areas is...

How to improve the decentralized approach in the city of Zagreb related to achieving carbon neutrality? (Please write your opinion in your own words)

  • Organize the purchase of primary agricultural products, either through processing industries or by sourcing from systems under the city's control (e.g., city markets, public procurement for hospitals, schools, etc.).

  • Establish long-term contracts with primary producers and gradually consolidate them into larger groups (cooperatives, producer organizations) to supply industries or public procurement.

  • Develop support systems at the city and county levels for primary agricultural production, including integrating rural areas into existing local action groups (LAGs) to provide support to farmers.

  • Promote and brand the entire system, possibly introducing certification for locally produced food and encouraging ecological or biodynamic farming practices.

  • Improve cycling infrastructure and promote sustainable development education in schools and preschools.

  • Support the transition to electric buses and vehicles for city transportation through crowdfunding campaigns.

  • Encourage citizens to shop locally and reduce reliance on large supermarkets, possibly through regulatory measures and support for local producers.

  • Regulate import and export laws to protect local food producers and consumers, ensuring a better balance between supply and demand.

  • Foster community engagement, creativity, and education through neighborhood initiatives, school programs, and rewarding creative association initiatives.

  • Encourage collaboration between local communities and city authorities to propose and evaluate sustainability projects.

  • Educate the public about the impact of industries on climate change and how to minimize food waste.

  • Promote local production and distribution based on quality rather than slogans.

  • Allow local communities to propose projects within a defined framework for easy evaluation and measurement of success.

  • Conduct education campaigns on carbon neutrality terminology and related initiatives.

  • Address corruption and empower local governance while setting clear green development goals.

  • Improve food distribution, donations, and legal regulations to reduce food waste.

  • Facilitate direct ordering of food from producers with regular deliveries.

  • Implement carbon-sequestering farming practices, promote eco-friendly delivery methods, and raise awareness of long-term consequences of carbon emissions.

  • Increase community involvement and finance initiatives aimed at carbon neutrality.

  • Educate citizens and demonstrate the financial benefits of carbon neutrality initiatives.

  • Enhance citizen education and transparent communication of city initiatives.

  • Evaluate the current state of affairs across all factors in the carbon neutrality chain.

  • Recognize the need for more information to provide a coherent response.

  • Regulate traffic networks and support cycling infrastructure.

  • Respect individuals' choices while promoting carbon-neutral practices.

  • Expand green areas and urban gardens for food production.

  • Promote green roofs, urban farming, and community gardening.

  • Encourage collaboration and cooperation among stakeholders.

What, in your opinion, is missing in order to achieve a reduction in the impact of food consumption in urban areas on climate change? (Please write your opinion in your own words)

  • Awareness and Education:
    • Raise awareness among people that consuming exotic foods that travel long distances is unsustainable.
    • Promote seasonal fruits and vegetables, locally sourced meat, and shopping at nearby stores.
    • The primary issue is a lack of awareness and willingness to change, often attributed to inadequate policies and education systems.
  • Denial of Climate Change:
    • Some respondents deny climate change and blame external factors for creating fear and harm.
    • Express skepticism about climate change and its causes.
  • Agricultural and Retail Initiatives:
    • Promote irrigation and organic farming.
    • Establish a retail chain that exclusively sells organic food and purchases all products from local farmers.
    • Propose creating a national food distribution fleet 
  • Recycling and Education:
    • Improve recycling facilities and collaborate with supermarkets and food retailers.
    • Enhance educational programs in schools, civil organizations, and for the general public.
    • Advocate for urgent regulations and laws related to food waste management and establish eductional programs focusing on 'willpower.'
  • Supporting Local Agriculture:
    • Emphasize the lack of organized local product procurement, leading to a high proportion of imported food.
    • Suggest educating people on optimal land use and suitable crops.
    • Highlight the need for local production controlled for authenticity.
  • Education and Behavioral Change:
    • Stress the importance of consumer education.
    • Question the belief that reducing personal consumption of specific foods will significantly impact overall supply.
    • Emphasize the role of consumer awareness and behavior in reducing climate impact.
  • Availability of Local Produce:
    • Point out that supermarkets are still cheaper and more accessible than local markets.
    • Personal shopping habits, like buying food in the afternoon when markets are closed, are also mentioned as a challenge.
  • Education and Promotion:
    • Advocate for public education and the promotion of best practices in food consumption from Croatia, the EU, and around the world.
    • Highlight the lack of knowledge about the impact of food consumption on climate change.
  • Public Perception and Economic Factors:
    • Mention a lack of general knowledge on the subject and the need for awareness.
    • Acknowledge the role of economic factors, such as cost and convenience, in food consumption choices.
  • Recycling Infrastructure: Call for a uniform system within retail to handle food waste and a clear regulatory framework with controlled mechanisms.
  • Local Agriculture Support: Encourage self-sufficiency in food production, co-finance eco-producers and innovative solutions.
  • Skepticism Towards Green Slogans: Express irritation with extreme "green" slogans and a reluctance to engage with them.
  • Reducing Food Imports: Suggest reducing food imports and supporting local producers as a primary market.
  • Education and Reducing CO2 Emissions: Emphasize the importance of educating the population on better food utilization and reducing CO2 emissions.
  • Infrastructure and Awareness: Mention a lack of infrastructure to promote decentralization and limited media coverage.
  • Greater Awareness and Information: Stress the need for greater awareness and information.
  • Regulatory Framework: Mention the need for regulations that address the issue.
  • Penalties for Food Waste: Suggest implementing penalties for food waste.
  • Urban Farming: Advocate for urban farms and dedicated spaces for them.
  • Marketing and Education:
    • Recommend increased marketing and educational efforts.
    • Highlight education as a key factor.
  • Political Agreement: Suggest that political leaders need to come to an agreement.
  • Smaller Portions: Suggest reducing portion sizes.
  • Collaboration: Recommend collaboration among stakeholders.
  • Education: 
  • Emphasize the need for more education.
  • Stress the importance of education.

These responses highlight the diverse perspectives and suggestions regarding the challenges and solutions related to reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change in urban areas.

What, in your opinion, are the barriers to reducing the impact of food consumption in the city of Zagreb on climate change? (Please write your opinion in your own words)

  • Policy and Regulations: Mention policy and regulatory barriers as a significant challenge.
  • Skepticism and Denial: Some respondents express skepticism or denial of climate change and its connection to food consumption.
  • Consumer Behavior and Cultural Factors:
    • Highlight cultural barriers related to meat consumption, with many believing that a meal must include meat to be satisfying.
    • Note that people in Zagreb tend to buy excessive amounts of food, leading to food waste.
  • Urban Agriculture Awareness: Mention that awareness of urban agriculture is still limited, both in academic circles and among the general population.
  • Short Food Supplies: Emphasize the lack of short food supply chains, which mostly exist on paper and in ideas but need to be realized.
  • Information and Education:
    • Identify inadequate and incomplete information and lack of education as barriers.
    • Point out the need for synchronized decision-making and information dissemination.
  • Infrastructure and Access:
    • Highlight difficulties for small producers in accessing sales points at city markets.
    • Suggest the need for better infrastructure and easier access to distribution points.
  • Economic Factors:
    • Note the role of capitalism, overexploitation of resources, and excessive food production.
    • Mention high food prices as a barrier.
  • Local Production Challenges: Point out the challenges faced by local producers, including bureaucracy and difficulties in accessing markets.
  • Environmental Impact of Food Production: Mention that environmental damage caused by food production is not being effectively addressed.
  • Lack of Trust in Institutions: Note that there is a lack of trust in institutions and a disinterest in changing habits.
  • Consumer and Retailer Influence: Mention the influence of consumers and retailers on food choices and consumption patterns.
  • Lack of Information and Education: Highlight the lack of information, education, and unclear legislative framework as barriers.
  • Food Distribution and Recycling: Identify challenges related to food waste disposal, composting, and distribution to small producers.
  • Promotion of Urban Farming: Suggest that the promotion of urban farming and incentives for building owners to implement such initiatives are lacking.
  • Lack of Interest and Involvement: Note that there is a general lack of interest and involvement in the issue, both from the government and the public.
  • Consumer and Seller Habits: Mention the role of consumer and seller habits in perpetuating the current system.
  • Inertia in the System: Point out that the current system is stagnant and resistant to change.
  • Lack of Awareness and Information: Stress the importance of raising awareness and providing information to the population.
  • Consumerism and Retailer Influence: Note the influence of consumerism and food retailers on people's choices and lifestyles.
  • Bureaucracy and Lack of Support: Identify bureaucracy and lack of support for small producers as barriers.
  • Lack of Infrastructure: Mention the absence of necessary infrastructure and the challenges it poses.
  • Greed and Packaging: Suggest that greed and excessive packaging contribute to the problem.
  • Ignorance:  Highlight ignorance as a barrier to change.

These responses reflect a range of obstacles and challenges associated with reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change in the city of Zagreb, including cultural, economic, regulatory, and educational factors.


What do you think needs to be done to overcome the mentioned barriers? (Please write your opinion in your own words)

  • Promote Sustainable Shopping Practices:
    • Ensure the availability of online shops, short food supply chains, and encourage bulk purchasing to reduce plastic waste.
    • Advocate for the reduction of plastic packaging and the use of alternative materials like cardboard and glass.
  • Education and Awareness:
    • Implement educational programs in schools, covering sustainable living and improvement initiatives.
    • Increase public awareness through educational programs in schools, civil organizations, and for the general public.
  • Environmental Labeling: Display carbon neutrality information on food packaging to visually inform consumers about the environmental impact of products.
  • Change in Economic System:  Suggest a shift away from capitalism and free markets, advocating for a planned economy and direct democratic decision-making focused on satisfying human needs and preserving life.
  • Government Collaboration: Encourage cooperation between public authorities and supermarkets or food retailers to enhance recycling capacities and sustainable practices.
  • Quality and Sustainable Food Options: Offer quality, environmentally-friendly food products that meet the modern needs of consumers.
  • Support for Innovation: Reduce bureaucracy, promote innovation, and reward successful projects.
  • Infrastructure Development: Invest in infrastructure development and encourage people to understand that cheaper is not always better.
  • Promotional Programs: Finance promotional programs that emphasize the benefits of reducing the impact of food consumption on the environment.
  • Education from an Early Age:Stress the importance of educating new generations from an early age about sustainability and the impact of food production on nature.
  • Support for Producers: Provide financial support and infrastructure for local producers.
  • Community Collaboration: Encourage knowledge sharing and raise awareness through community collaboration among all stakeholders in the food supply system.
  • Educatory Initiatives: Conduct educational activities such as lectures, workshops, and green events.
  • Waste Management: Organize the delivery of compost and fertilizers door-to-door and reward citizens for their efforts.
  • Political Change: Some respondents suggest changing local leadership or political figures who are considered extreme environmentalists.
  • Affordability: Make sustainable food more affordable for everyone.
  • Influence on Retailers: Advocate for changes in the laws governing large retailers and their business practices.
  • Leadership and Intelligence: Encourage leaders who are intelligent and independent in their decision-making.
  • Communication and Transparency: Promote open communication and transparency.
  • Regulations and Control: Suggest stronger regulations regarding the import of food products.
  • Proactivity and Persistence: Stress the importance of proactivity and persistence in addressing the issue.
  • Personal Responsibility: Encourage individuals to take personal responsibility and action.
  • Coordinated Efforts: Promote coordinated efforts at the city and local government levels.
  • Knowledge and Awareness: Highlight the importance of understanding the subject matter.
  • Financial and Expert Support: Provide support, both financial and expert, to enable the realization of sustainable projects.
  • Preventive Education: Emphasize the benefits of growing one's food through preventive education.
  • Information Dissemination: Share information on products and sales points.
  • Starting to Address the Problem: Encourage individuals and communities to start addressing the problem.
  • Regulation of Imported Food: Advocate for stronger regulations concerning imported food.
  • Open Communication: Stress the importance of open communication.

These responses suggest a variety of actions and strategies to address the barriers to reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change in Zagreb, including education, regulation, collaboration, and changes in consumer behavior and economic systems.

Please select which of the listed activities is important to raise knowledge and awareness about the impact of food consumption in urban areas on climate change.

Please describe what, in your opinion, influences the implementation of the above-mentioned activities at the level of the City of Zagreb? (Please write your opinion in your own words.)

  • Organized Procurement of Agricultural Raw Materials: The establishment of an organized procurement system for primary agricultural raw materials is essential. Without this foundation, other initiatives may struggle to succeed.
  • Education and Curriculum:
    • The structure of educational programs in schools and universities plays a significant role. Emphasizing the importance of caring for the Earth and integrating these topics into curricula is crucial.
    • NGOs should receive more funding to expand their role in educating the public about CO2 footprints and other essential topics.
  • Environmental Awareness and Political Will:
    • Political will and awareness of environmental issues among politicians influence the implementation of activities.
    • The occasional enthusiasm of individuals and the tendency of politicians to prioritize appearances before elections can affect outcomes.
  • Responsible and Educated Individuals: The involvement of responsible and educated individuals who can set examples and make the activities simple to follow is vital.
  • Financial contributions from supermarket chains to support initiatives that promote sustainability and combat monopolies can be a significant factor.
  • Lack of Creativity in Raising Awareness: There is a need for more creative approaches to raise public awareness and share successful examples of good practices.
  • Waste Management and Citizen Involvement: Effective waste management practices and citizen involvement play roles in the success of initiatives.
  • Lack of Government Will: The lack of political will at the national level can hinder progress in the city.
  • Motivation and Engagement: Motivating various stakeholders at all levels of society is necessary for successful implementation.
  • Concerns About Extreme Environmental Policies: Some respondents express concerns about extreme environmental policies and their impact.
  • Positive Examples from Other Areas: Learning from positive examples and practices in other regions can contribute to successful initiatives.
  • Promotion and Rewards for Good Practices: Promotion and rewards for the implementation of good practices are essential for success.
  • Lack of Activities and Realization: Some respondents mention a lack of visible activities and realization of initiatives in this area.
  • Insufficient Support: The success of good practices can be hindered by a lack of support.
  • Other Communal Issues: Other major communal issues can divert attention and resources from sustainability initiatives.
  • Communication and Sharing from Other Regions: Effective communication and sharing of best practices from other regions can influence success.
  • Involvement of Various Stakeholders:The engagement of various stakeholders, including government bodies and organizations, is necessary for progress.
  • City Budget: The budget allocated by the city of Zagreb can impact the implementation of sustainability initiatives.
  • Lack of Education: A lack of education on sustainability issues can hinder progress.
  • Sources of Funding: Access to funding sources is important for realizing activities.
  • Political Will of the Government: The political will of the government can significantly affect progress.
  • Involvement of NGOs: The participation of NGOs can contribute to the realization of activities.

These responses highlight various factors, including education, political will, financial support, and citizen engagement, that can influence the success of activities aimed at reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change in Zagreb.

What are your basic information needs related to the impact of food on climate change? (Please write in your own words your opinion)

  • Desire for Information and Education: Many respondents express a need for more information and education about how food choices impact climate change. They are interested in understanding the carbon footprint of different foods and the environmental consequences of their dietary choices.
  • Skepticism and Lack of Awareness: Some respondents express skepticism about the link between food and climate change, highlighting the need for clear and accurate information to raise awareness and address misconceptions.
  • Interest in Local and Sustainable Food: Several respondents mention the importance of knowing where their food comes from and its environmental impact. They are interested in supporting local and sustainable food sources.
  • Access to Information: Respondents indicate that information on this topic is not always readily available or accessible. They express a need for more transparent and easily understandable information.
  • Curiosity About CO2 Footprints:Some respondents are curious about the carbon footprints of different food categories and would like to know how much CO2 is associated with their food choices.
  • Interest in Alternatives: There is an interest in learning about alternative food choices that are more environmentally friendly.
  • Desire for Practical Information:Respondents express a need for practical information that helps them make informed choices when buying food, such as understanding the environmental impact of food products and the benefits of local produce.
  • Importance of Education and Awareness Programs: Many respondents mention the importance of educational programs in schools, civil organizations, and public awareness campaigns to disseminate information about the impact of food on climate change.
  • Information About Local Products: Some respondents want information about locally produced food and its sustainability compared to imported products.
  • Interest in Good Practices: Some express interest in learning about good practices and solutions related to sustainable food choices.

These responses reflect a range of perspectives on the importance of information and education regarding the impact of food on climate change, with some respondents seeking more knowledge and awareness on the subject.


Which of the activities listed below would increase the community's interest in reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change in the city of Zagreb?

What do you think are the main barriers to increasing citizens' participation in the process of reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change? (Please write your opinion in your own words)


These responses highlight the need for comprehensive education, clear communication, affordable sustainable food options, and incentives to motivate citizens to actively participate in reducing the impact of food consumption on climate change. Overcoming these barriers will require a multi-faceted approach involving government, industry, and civil society.

Which of the activities listed below can increase the community's innovation related to food consumption and its impact on climate change?

Which of the activities listed below can stimulate sustainable financing and socio-economic impacts?

Which of the activities listed below can influence a change in behavior and dietary habits based on publicly available data?